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So far nerses has created 107 blog entries.

Introduction to Armenia’s IT Sector & Seaside Startup Summit

Armenia’s tech sector has been a driving force in the economy, representing close to 7% of the country’s GDP output and 15% of total exports. According to a recent EIF report the software sector grew more than 27% in 2017, employing over 17,700 professionals. Expectations are high and investors are betting on the promise of [...]

2019-10-11T16:14:11+04:00 July 3rd, 2019|

Minimum Salary & Business Turnover Requirements to Be Introduced for Work Residence Permits

Minimum Salary & Business Turnover Requirements to Be Introduced for Work Residence Permit in Georgia Under current regulations a foreign employee may qualify for a work residence permit in Georgia if he/she provides an employment agreement showing his monthly salary, which must be at least twice the amount of average consumer living subsistence (currently GEL [...]

2019-03-15T08:06:59+04:00 March 5th, 2019|

Minimum Investment for Investor Residence Permit to Be Raised to US$300,000 from US$112,000

Minimum Investment for Investor Residence Permit in Georgia to Be Raised to US$300,000 from US$112,000 Under current regulations, a foreign investor may qualify for an investor residence permit in Georgia if he/she invests GEL 300,000 (US$112,000) in the economy of Georgia. Investor residence permit is permanent. These regulations are likely to be changed by upcoming [...]

2019-03-15T07:48:41+04:00 March 5th, 2019|

Minimum Investment for Property Owner Residence Permit to Be Raised to US$100,000 from $35,000

Minimum Investment for Property Owner Residence Permit in Georgia to Be Raised to US$100,000 from US$35,000 Under current regulations, a foreign investor may qualify for a short-term (one-year) renewable residence permit in Georgia if he/she acquires property worth US$35,000 and higher, except for agricultural land. These regulations are likely to be changed by upcoming legislative [...]

2019-03-15T08:11:35+04:00 March 5th, 2019|

Georgia Ranked Highest in the Region by Global Indexes

Georgia Ranked Highest in the Region by Global IndexesRanking (2018)ArmeniaAzerbaijanGeorgiaTurkeyDoing Business47/19057/1906/19060/190European Chamber39/4645/4618/4638/46Global Competitiveness68/14069/14066/14061/140Open Budget Index N/A76/1155/11532/115Human Freedom Index54/159128/15940/15984/159Global Law and Order    69/142    25/14217/14272/142Prosperity Index    88/149    99/14980/149    93/149World Democracy Index    103/189   149/18989/189   110/189

2019-03-15T06:16:34+04:00 January 26th, 2019|

Tax Benefits for IT Companies in Armenia

Tax Benefits for IT Companies in Armenia According to the government approval of a set of amendments to the law on state assistance to IT sector government, startups and branches of foreign IT companies will be granted tax breaks. Armen Pambukchyan, deputy Minister of Transport, Communications and Information Technology claimed that the tax benefits will [...]

2019-01-04T12:59:38+04:00 January 4th, 2019|

Armenia’s Hospitality Ranking Is the Highest in the Region

Armenia’s Hospitality Ranking Is the Highest in the Region Passport Index has rated countries on hospitality, based on the number of states the nationals of which can visit the country without a visa. Armenia holds the 29th place as it allows nationals of 132 countries (including India and China) to visit the country without a [...]

2019-10-11T16:23:53+04:00 January 4th, 2019|

Property Prices Grow by 23% in Downtown Yerevan (Sep-Oct. 2018)

Official: Property Prices Grow by 23% in Central Yerevan Foreigners that are interested in buying real estate in Armenia may also be interested in latest price changes. The prices for housing in downtown Yerevan, when compared to September-October last year, rose by 23%. According to the head of the Real Estate Cadastre Committee, Sarhat Petrosyan, [...]

2019-06-08T12:03:14+04:00 December 5th, 2018|

Visa-Free Travel between Georgia and Serbia

On March 8, 2018, Serbia exempted Georgian passport holders from visa requirements. Under the new rules Georgian nationals can enter and stay in Serbia without a visa for up to 30 days in a year. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Serbia, Abolished Visas for Citizens of Georgia, Holders of Ordinary Passport (Mar. [...]

2018-03-26T08:54:01+04:00 March 26th, 2018|

Georgian Citizenship Granted to 3,000 Foreigners in 2017

In 2017 the President of Georgia granted citizenship to 3,000 foreigners who applied under regular procedure for naturalization. Moreover, 8 foreigners acquired citizenship by exception for outstanding contribution to Georgia. Out of these 8 foreigners 3 were citizens of Russia and another 3 were German citizens. 3,000 Foreigners Receive Georgian Citizenship in 2017, GeorgiaToday (Jan. [...]

2018-03-26T08:45:06+04:00 March 26th, 2018|

Georgian Passport Ranks 53rd in the World

With the visa-free regime with the European Union/Schengen zone, which came into effect on March 28, 2017, the Georgian passport has made 15 steps forward from the previous ranking. Georgian citizens can now travel visa-free to 99 countries. Georgian Passport Takes 15 Steps Forward in International Henley & Partners Ranking, Agenda.ge (Jan. 9, 2018).

2018-03-26T08:39:54+04:00 March 26th, 2018|

Passport-Free Travel Between Georgia and Ukraine

The governments of Georgia and Ukraine are working to make is possible for their citizens to travel between the two countries without a passport. Currently, Georgian citizens can stay in Ukraine visa-free for 90 days in a 180-day period but they do need a passport to cross the border. Under the new initiative, travelers will only [...]

2018-03-26T06:34:16+04:00 March 26th, 2018|

Armenia Allows Indians to Get E-Visa and Visa on Arrival

Getting E-Visa and Visa on Arrival On Nov. 22, 2017, Armenia became the easiest country for Indian nationals to visit in Europe. As they can get visa on arrival or a visa online (e-visa) before their arrival to Armenia. Alternatively, they can simply buy tickets, come to Armenia and get a visa on arrival at [...]

2019-10-09T18:58:28+04:00 December 2nd, 2017|

Property Prices in Armenia (2002-2017)

Armenian real estate market grew exponentially between 2002 and 2008 with prices going up by 570%. In 2009 the country’s economy was hit by the global financial crisis and real estate prices went gradually down over the next few years. They remained generally unchanged during 2014-2017 and only a minor growth (2%) has been recorded [...]

2019-10-09T18:57:47+04:00 December 2nd, 2017|

Review of Armenia and Georgia Business Visas

Armenia and Georgia are small neighboring countries in Caucasus. Both countries welcome foreign investors and entrepreneurs and offer immigration benefits such as short-term and long-term business visas and residence permits. Business Visas for Business Owners Armenia and Georgia are small neighboring countries in Caucasus. Both countries welcome foreign investors and entrepreneurs and offer immigration benefits [...]

2019-10-09T18:57:02+04:00 November 17th, 2017|

15 Reasons to Get an Armenian Passport

Benefits of an Armenian Passport  Armenian passport (citizenship) can be acquired by ethnic Armenians, i.e. those who have ancestors of Armenian origin, as well as long-term residents of Armenia, spouses of Armenian citizens and certain other categories of individuals. Below is a list of 15 reasons why obtaining an [...]

2017-07-01T00:25:20+04:00 June 5th, 2017|

Easiest European Country for Immigration? – Armenia

 The Easiest Country for Immigration Armenia is perhaps the easiest country for immigration in Europe, if not the whole world.  Immigrants are not required to prove income, make large investments, purchase real property, have bank accounts, obtain health insurance or speak Armenian, whitch can be a problem for foreigners. Residency Permit In Armenia there are no [...]

2018-12-30T20:14:20+04:00 December 19th, 2015|

Illegal Entrepreneurship

Illegal entrepreneurship is defined as conducting business activities without state registration or without obtaining a license, if required. State registration is not required, however, for small entrepreneurs paying "patent fees" and agricultural workers. There are multiple penalties for illegal entrepreneurship prescribed by criminal, administrative and tax laws: Administrative fine of AMD 15,000 - 30,000 (USD 32-64); [...]

2015-10-04T17:58:52+04:00 October 4th, 2015|

Disability Fund Payments

Disability fund payments are social security payments the purpose of which is to promote the integration of disabled people in the Armenian labor market. They are collected by the Armenian government from organizations with more than 100 employees and used specifically for addressing social and health issues faced by disabled people. The law requires such companies [...]

2015-10-04T17:38:01+04:00 September 3rd, 2015|

Advertisement & Marketing Regulations and Penalties

Armenian regulations of marketing are mostly found in the Law on Advertisement and are enforced by designated bodies, such as the National Commission on Television and Radio or local authorities. The Code of Administrative Offenses provides the following penalties for violations of marketing regulations: Failure to comply with official notices and warnings regarding outdoor advertisement - [...]

2015-10-04T18:29:53+04:00 August 23rd, 2015|

Immigration Offenses in Armenia

While the status of foreigners is regulated by the Armenian Law on Foreigners, immigration-related offenses and penalties are generally contained in the Code of Administrative Offenses. Namely, article 201 of the Code provides penalties for visa overstay and other illegal stay of foreigners in Armenia. You can find more information on visa overstay, including applicable [...]

2018-03-31T09:52:55+04:00 August 22nd, 2015|

The Protection of Economic Competition

The State Commission for the Protection of Economic Competition performs the following tasks: protects and promotes free economic competition to contribute to the development of entrepreneurship and protect the customers' rights and interests, ensures appropriate environment for fair competition, prevents, precautions, and restricts anti-competitive activities, controls the economic competition protection. In order to achieve these goals, [...]

2015-08-20T11:58:24+04:00 August 17th, 2015|

Official Language in Armenia

Armenian is the official language of Armenia. According to the law on Language, state bodies, enterprises, institutions and organizations (regardless of ownership) must maintain their documentation (including posters, letterheads, labels, stamps, seals, international mail envelopes, ads) in Armenian, coupled with other languages if necessary. Furthermore, the documentation of foreign government agencies, enterprises, institutions and organizations that is [...]

2015-08-14T13:22:27+04:00 August 14th, 2015|

Company Management in Armenia

Company management is the organization and coordination of the activities of the business in order to achieve the defined objectives. The most common form of management is the individual executive director. For both JSCs and LLCs, the General Meeting of Shareholders (Participants) has the highest power in the company. The shareholders (participants) have a right to [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 August 10th, 2015|

Employment and Dismissal in Armenia

An employment contract is an agreement between the employee and the employer that specifies the rights and obligations of each party. According to the Labor Code of Armenia, employment contracts must contain the following information: the date, month, year, and place of signing the contract, the employees name (including their patronymic if they wish), the employing [...]

2015-08-07T12:39:33+04:00 August 7th, 2015|

Licensing in Armenia

In order to legally engage in certain kinds of activities, individuals (including Individual Entrepreneurs (IE)) and legal entities have to obtain a license that gives them a permission to do so. License fees replace VAT and Income tax for individuals (including IE), and VAT and Profit tax for legal entities. The rates of license fees depend [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 July 28th, 2015|

Power of Attorney in Armenia

A power of attorney (POA) is a written authorization to represent or act on another's behalf in private affairs, business, or some other legal matter. Armenian law does not require the principal (the person authorizing another to act) to give a POA in the form of a single document. But in practice it is almost [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 July 25th, 2015|

Virtual Office in Armenia

Armenian law does not require businesses to own or rent brick and mortar offices or employ staff. Thus many local companies, especially foreign-owned, may choose to use virtual offices. Virtual offices allow their users to do business without having to rent, own or otherwise occupy the business addresses used for their registration or business correspondence. With a [...]

2015-07-13T02:34:11+04:00 July 12th, 2015|

Registering as Individual Entrepreneur in Armenia

It is possible for a person (including a foreign citizen) to register as individual entrepreneur (sole proprietor) in Armenia to do business without forming a company. It is important to remember that in Armenia only individuals registered as entrepreneurs are allowed to engage in business activities. Failure to register may result in very harsh administrative and [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 July 9th, 2015|

Company Liquidation

Company liquidation can happen for a number of reasons: by the decision of its founders (shareholders, participants) (including on expiry of the period or the accomplishment of the objectives for which it was established) by a court decision to invalidate its registration based on violations of law during the registration by a court ruling for performing [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 July 7th, 2015|

Customs Benefits for Permanent Residents

Individuals arriving to Armenia for permanent residence (including refugees) can import their personal property without paying customs payments (including VAT).  To be eligible for these benefits, the person has to have resided outside of Armenia for at least five consecutive years (except for refugees). This requirement will be met if the person has lived outside of Armenia for 184 and [...]

2018-04-14T09:21:28+04:00 July 1st, 2015|

Opening a bank account in Armenia

Information on this webpage is NOT updated and may be inaccurate. Please contact us for more information.There are 21 Banks in Armenia (all of them are private, some of these banks are international, e.g. ACBA-CREDIT AGRICOLE BANK (French Credit Agricole Banking Group holds 28% of its shares), Areximbank - Gazprombank Group, Bank Anelik (100% of its [...]

2018-12-24T09:04:29+04:00 June 18th, 2015|

Tax Benefits in Republic of Armenia

The Tax Legislation of Republic of Armenia offers tax benefits for many types of economic activities for both resident and non-resident taxpayers. Some of the most notable tax benefits include the benefits defined by the law on State Support of IT Sphere, the recent changes to the law on Profit tax, and the tax exemption [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 June 15th, 2015|

Corporate Profit Tax in Armenia

The headline rate of corporate profit tax in Armenia is 20% for resident companies, and, depending on the type of the taxable income, 0-20% for non-residents. The law on Profit tax provides tax benefits (5% and 2%) for major exporters that deal exclusively in export, if the cost of exported goods exceeds 40 billion and [...]

2015-06-10T21:16:59+04:00 June 9th, 2015|

Thin capitalisation rules in Armenia

According to "thin capitalisation" rules in Armenia, the maximum amount of interest that may be recognised as an expense when accounting taxable income is limited to the double of the amount of company's net assets if the interest is paid to entities other than banks and credit institutions, and, ninefold of its net assets if [...]

2015-05-27T00:02:36+04:00 May 27th, 2015|

Profit tax rates for non-residents

Dividends, royalties, interest, and property lease payments paid by a locally resident company to a non-resident are subject to a withholding tax at a rate of 10%. The local company making the payments deducts the amount of withholding tax at the source of paying income. However, if the recipient of the payment is a resident [...]

2015-05-25T19:01:00+04:00 May 25th, 2015|

A Q&A about transaction taxes in Republic of Armenia

Q: Are there any documentary taxes in Armenia? A: Armenia does not levy any documentary taxes on documents evidencing transactions.   Q: Is there Value Added Tax (or a similar tax)? If so, at what rate or rates? A: A person (legal entity, individual entrepreneur, etc. ) is considered a VAT payer if they carry out entrepreneurial [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 May 20th, 2015|

A Q&A about the bilateral tax treaties of Republic of Armenia

Q: Do the double taxation avoidance treaties of Republic of Armenia follow the OECD or another model? A: While the majority of the treaties follow the OECD model, there are also exceptions, such as the one with Switzerland.   Q: Do treaties have to be incorporated into domestic law before they take effect? A: According to the [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 May 19th, 2015|

Double Tax Avoidance Agreements

The Republic of Armenia has 41 income tax treaties and agreements currently in force. The list of treaties is available below: Austria (EN) Belarus (RU) Belgium (EN) Bulgaria (EN) Canada (EN) China (EN) Croatia (EN) Cyprus (EN) Czech Republic (EN) Estonia (EN) Finland (EN) France (EN) Georgia (RU) Germany (EN, DE) Greece (EN) Hungary (EN) [...]

2015-05-15T19:24:48+04:00 May 15th, 2015|

Work Permits for Foreigners

The National Assembly of RA passed the bill about amendments to the law on Foreigners that regulates issues related to work permits for foreigners. The bill clarifies a number of subjects, the following points being the most notable: the employer applies to the Government appointed authorized body for a work permit for the foreign employee they [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 May 14th, 2015|

Tax Benefits for IT Start-ups

According to tax legislation, for taxpayers certified and operating under the law on State Support of IT Sphere, the income obtained from the realization of the IT products is considered deductible income (law on Income tax), and, at the same time, from the standpoint of the law on Profit tax, it is not a part [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 May 12th, 2015|

Residency for High Net Worth Individuals and Investors

Any type of business activity in Armenia, including passive investment, qualifies for a temporary residence permit, irrespective of the actual amount invested. Thus, Armenia might be a good option for those who cannot afford large investments.

2015-02-09T09:28:47+04:00 February 9th, 2015|

Objective Criteria for Issuing or Refusing Visas & Residence Permits

Armenian immigration authorities must follow objective criteria when deciding whether to grant or refuse applications for visa or residence permit.  However, the evaluation of certain evidence is unavoidably subjective. In particular, the application may be rejected if the applicant presented false information about him/herself, failed to submit necessary documents or if the immigration authorities have knowledge that [...]

2015-02-05T09:23:54+04:00 February 5th, 2015|

Minimum benefits for foreign employees

Foreign employees are entitled to the same benefits as local employees, including a minimum monthly salary of 50,000 drams ($105) to be raised to 55,000 drams ($116) from July 1, 2015. However, the employer is not required to ensure the same level of compensation for local and foreign workers in comparable positions. Employee insurance is [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:28+04:00 February 4th, 2015|

Visa Processing Time

Visas for nationals of certain countries can be issued only by Armenian consulates abroad. Wait times for visa appointments vary and normally take several days. Temporary and permanent residence permits are issued 30 days after the petition.

2015-02-03T08:13:15+04:00 February 3rd, 2015|

Maximum Periods of Stay in Armenia

Ordinary business visas in Armenia are issued for a period of up to 120 days, extendable by another 60 days. Temporary residence permits are issued for 1 year and are renewable. Permanent residence cards are valid for 5 years. Foreigners holding residence cards for more than 3 years may be eligible for naturalization.

2018-04-05T07:57:57+04:00 February 2nd, 2015|

Procedures for Obtaining Immigration Permissions

Unless a foreign individual is exempted from work permit requirements, the employer must first obtain a work permit by applying to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MLSA) of Armenia. The migrant must then apply for a temporary residence permit in order to be granted the permission to live and work in Armenia. The process [...]

2018-04-05T08:01:10+04:00 November 28th, 2014|

Immigration Permits for Transferring Staff

Generally a holder of an Armenian visa is not entitled to work in Armenia unless s/he also holds a work permit. Highly skilled foreign specialists, business owners, executives and certain other categories of workers are exempt from work permit requirements. The transfer of staff (skilled or non-qualified) is subject to obtaining both a work permit and [...]

2018-04-05T08:04:11+04:00 November 27th, 2014|

Transit Visas in Armenia

People transiting Armenia do not require a visitor visa if they are stopping off at an Armenian airport on their way to another country, staying in Armenia for less than 48 hours, and not leaving the transit area of the airport. A transit visa is not required for those who are from a visa-free country. [...]

2018-04-05T08:07:35+04:00 November 26th, 2014|

Work Permits for Giving or Receiving Short-Term Training

Armenian immigration laws do not contain specific regulations for giving or receiving short-term training. Work permit may be required if payment or benefit is received while in Armenia. An individual may enter Armenia as a business visitor for the purpose of providing short-term training under certain circumstances, such as providing training for up to 6 [...]

2018-04-05T08:10:27+04:00 November 25th, 2014|

Restrictions on Business Visitors

A business visitor cannot undertake work activities while in Armenia, unless these activities are exempted from work permit requirements. Permitted activities during a business trip include meetings, interviews, discussions, negotiations, exploring business opportunities, attending conferences, conducting site visits, taking orders or purchasing goods or services. Payment by an Armenian entity of salary or other remuneration [...]

2014-11-24T06:50:17+04:00 November 24th, 2014|

Visa Requirements for Short-Term Business Travelers

Visa requirements for entering Armenia vary greatly between different nationalities. Visa exempt nationals (EU/EFTA and CIS) may travel to Armenia for periods of up to 180 days. Other nationals can enter Armenia and obtain a visa at port of arrival. Visa fees range from $7 to $100 for a 120-day multiple entry visa. Visas can [...]

2018-04-05T08:24:07+04:00 November 21st, 2014|

Free Movement of Armenian Workers in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

Starting from January 1, 2015 Armenia will join the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), which provides for a common market and free movement of workers among the member states (Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia). It is worth noting that these privileges do not apply to foreigners who hold a residence permit in Armenia. Such residents shall [...]

2014-11-20T16:00:59+04:00 November 20th, 2014|

Exemptions from Work Permit Requirements in Armenia

Expatriate workers in Armenia shall possess an individual work permit issued my the Ministry of Social Affairs. This requirement does not apply to the following categories of foreigners: Holders of permanent or special residency permits; Holders of temporary residency permits if such a temporary residence permit is issued on the basis of being a family member of [...]

2018-04-05T08:26:16+04:00 November 19th, 2014|

Moment of Creation of VAT Liability

For purposes of VAT the moment of supply of goods (provision of services) is the moment when the goods were delivered or transferred to the buyers or when the services were provided to the customers. Art. 31 of the Law on VAT. The Court of Cassation held that VAT liability is created at the moment when the [...]

2014-11-01T14:06:43+04:00 November 1st, 2014|

Taxpayers’ Rights Cannot Be Restricted by Secondary Legislation

In Armenia only the legislative acts of the Parliament may restrict the rights and freedoms of individuals and legal entities, impose obligations, define penalties, impose taxes, including the rate and the order of payment. Art. 9 of the Law on Legal Acts. Legal acts of lower force, including instructions of the tax authorities, may not [...]

2014-10-31T08:29:53+04:00 October 31st, 2014|

VAT Taxation of Agency Services

For VAT purposes the following services are deemed to be provided in Armenia if the recipient of services is registered in Armenia (art. 14 of the Law on VAT): Consulting Legal Accounting Expert Translation Engineering Data processing Software Financial Other similar services Agency services are not considered to be a separate type of services but [...]

2014-10-30T07:36:43+04:00 October 30th, 2014|

Zero Rate VAT for Processing Services

In Armenia zero rate VAT applies, among other things, to re-exported goods and to processing, assembly, renovation, modernization and similar services performed on goods to be exported from Armenia. Article 16(7) of the Law on VAT. The Court of Cassation held that this provision does not apply to services for sorting diamonds, i.e. sorting them in accordance with [...]

2014-10-29T08:48:08+04:00 October 29th, 2014|

Taxation of Expropriation

According to the Armenian Law on Alienation of Property for Public and State Needs, financial obligations arising from the transfer of property, in particular tax liabilities, shall be compensated by the acquirer. Furthermore, alienation of property in the interest of the public shall not cause unreasonable harm to the owner. Based on the foregoing, the Court [...]

2014-10-28T08:29:52+04:00 October 28th, 2014|

Deduction of input VAT and VAT refund

Taxpayers deduct from the VAT imposed on the taxable turnover (output VAT) the VAT which was paid to the suppliers for acquired  goods and services (input VAT). Art. 23 of the Law on VAT. The deduction is allowed if: The goods (services) were acquired for manufacturing or other commercial purposes, The amount of VAT is [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:29+04:00 October 27th, 2014|

VAT on Gifts, Discounts and Deals

Gratuitous or partially compensated transactions in Armenia are subject to full VAT taxation based on the real (market) value of the goods and services provided. Article 6(3) of the Law on VAT. If the goods (services) are sold at a price which is substantially lower than the normal price, the transaction shall be treated as a partially compensated (or [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:29+04:00 October 23rd, 2014|

VAT on Gifts, Discounts and Deals

Gratuitous or partially compensated transactions in Armenia are subject to full VAT taxation based on the real (market) value of the goods and services provided. Article 6(3) of the Law on VAT. If the goods (services) are sold at a price which is substantially lower than the normal price, the transaction shall be treated as a partially compensated (or [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:29+04:00 October 23rd, 2014|

VAT on Gifts, Discounts and Deals

Gratuitous or partially compensated transactions in Armenia are subject to full VAT taxation based on the real (market) value of the goods and services provided. Article 6(3) of the Law on VAT. If the goods (services) are sold at a price which is substantially lower than the normal price, the transaction shall be treated as a partially compensated (or [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:29+04:00 October 23rd, 2014|

New tax credit for mortgage interest

During a meeting on business environment improvement on September 3, 2014, the Prime Minister approved a proposal to amend the Law on Income Tax to allow for a refund of income taxes paid by taxpayers who take a mortgage loan. Income tax paid by individual taxpayers (including through withholding agents) will be refunded to the [...]

2014-10-14T16:36:29+04:00 October 14th, 2014|

Amendments to the Law on VAT

The Ministry of Finance initiated amendments to the Law on VAT to allow taxpayers to deduct the input VAT even if the payment for goods or services is deferred, provided that other conditions of deductibility are met. This amendment is expected to become effective on January 1, 2015 and its application will first extend to [...]

2014-10-14T16:31:05+04:00 October 14th, 2014|

Tax Liens

On August 28, 2014, the Government approved amendments to the Law on Taxes introducing the concept of tax lien (restriction). The priority of the tax lien vis-à-vis the secured interests of other creditors will be determined by the time of its filing with the registry of movable property and may extend to bank accounts and [...]

2014-10-14T16:26:27+04:00 October 14th, 2014|

New Anti-Money Laundering Law in Armenia

On June 21 the National Assembly passed a new Law on Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing which provides for mandatory reporting of cash transactions in the amount of AMD 5 million (around USD 12,200) or more. Issuance and servicing of bearer securities and payment instruments will be prohibited. The law also provides for new documentation [...]

2014-08-23T11:51:15+04:00 July 17th, 2014|

Elimination of Excise Tax on Imported Cars

The Government of Armenia approved amendments to the law on excise tax, which exempt the import of luxury cars from 20% excise tax. Luxury cars are defined as those with customs value exceeding AMD 25 million or those aged 2 years and less with engine capacity exceeding 4,500 cc.

2014-08-23T11:51:03+04:00 June 16th, 2014|

Use of Fiscal Stamps in Armenia will be Extended

The National Assembly of Armenia passed a law extending the list of goods the sale or import of which require the use of fiscal stamps. In particular, fiscal stamps will be mandatory for the  following packaged or bottled goods: milk; cream; yogurt; ice cream; coffee; tea; vegetable oil; canned meat, fish, fruits and vegetables; vinegar; [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:30+04:00 June 16th, 2014|

Attachment of bank accounts will be streamlined

On February 20th the Government approved a draft amendment to the Law on Taxes regarding attachment of bank accounts by tax authorities. The amendment clarifies that funds on a bank account shall be blocked only to the extent of assessed tax liabilities. It also prevents unnecessary attachment of multiple accounts held by the taxpayer in [...]

2014-08-23T11:50:49+04:00 April 14th, 2014|

Law on Funded Pensions held unconstitutional

On April 2, 2014, the Constitutional Court of Armenia held unconstitutional a number of provisions of the Law on Funded Pensions. It was established, in particular, that the Law violates the right to freely own, use and dispose of the property. The Court did not invalidate the Law immediately but set a deadline of September [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:30+04:00 April 14th, 2014|

Tax treatment of stock and asset acquisitions

Armenian companies are subject to income (profit) tax and value added tax (VAT). Companies possess a fiscal identity separate from that of shareholders. In case of stock acquisition the book value of the assets and liabilities of the target company remains unchanged. The acquirer will inherit all historic tax liabilities but also tax loss carryovers. [...]

2014-08-23T11:50:37+04:00 January 22nd, 2014|

Company formation laws and agencies

All companies in Armenia must register with the State Registry, which is a special agency under the Ministry of Justice. The company formation and company structures are governed by the Civil Code of Armenia. Further entity-specific laws apply to limited liability companies and joint-stock companies (private or public). The Law on State Registration of Legal Entities [...]

2014-08-23T11:50:31+04:00 January 17th, 2014|

Famous foreign trademarks in Armenia

A famous foreign trademark is not afforded protection if it has not been used domestically in Armenia. Such protection is only available where the foreign trademark has become well-known (widely recognized) among the relevant public in Armenia through its actual use. Furthermore, the law requires the Armenian Intellectual Property Agency (AIPA) to maintain a separate [...]

2014-08-23T11:50:26+04:00 January 7th, 2014|

ADR techniques in trademark disputes

ADR techniques, such as mediation and arbitration, are available in Armenia, although not commonly used. This may be because court proceedings in Armenia are, in general, much less costly than in developed countries. Practically all trademark disputes, except for criminal and administrative cases, can be arbitrated. Arbitration is usually based on an arbitration clause contained in [...]

2014-08-23T11:50:26+04:00 January 6th, 2014|

Remedies for trademark infringement in Armenia

The remedies available to a prevailing plaintiff can include monetary damages, injunction against future infringement, erasure of the infringing sign, seizure and destruction of the infringing goods, and publication of the judgment at the defendant’s expense. The court may also award reasonable attorney’s fees. Criminal remedies are typically pursued separately. Injunctive relief is available to [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:30+04:00 December 16th, 2013|

Defenses available in Armenia to a charge of trademark infringement

In trademark infringement proceedings in Armenia numerous defenses are available, and depend on the specific facts in question. Generally they can be grouped into four categories. 1.    Non-infringement The defendant may argue that no infringement took place, in particular: The sign complained of is not identical or similar to the plaintiff’s trademark; The goods/services on [...]

2014-08-23T11:50:03+04:00 December 3rd, 2013|

Appeals in trademark litigation in Armenia

There is only one avenue of appeal in civil actions (trademark infringement and dilution) in Armenia, namely from the court of general jurisdiction to the Court of Appeals, and thereafter to the Court of Cassation. Preliminary injunctions and other provisional remedies are not subject to appeal. The appeal shall be filed within one month of [...]

2014-08-23T11:49:57+04:00 November 27th, 2013|

Trademark litigation costs in Armenia

The trademark litigation costs in Armenia vary and depend, among other things, on the appointed counsel and the complexity of the case, i.e. the documentation needed, witness statements and expert opinions required, translation costs, marketing reports, market surveys, and whether the trademark owner seeks preliminary injunction or other provisional remedies. Overall, the costs of litigation [...]

2014-08-23T11:49:50+04:00 November 26th, 2013|

Time frame for trademark infringement action in Armenia

All trademark infringement or dilution proceedings vary in length depending on the workload of the courts, the complexity of the facts and legal questions raised, the documentation needed, procedural difficulties, appeals, etc. On average it takes seven to nine months for a judgment to be issued, if no expert opinion is needed. The first hearing [...]

2014-08-23T11:49:44+04:00 November 22nd, 2013|

Obtaining evidence in trademark infringement cases in Armenia

Armenian procedural law does not provide for full discovery, but in pending trademark infringement actions courts may generally order evidence disclosure measures upon request of a party, such as disclosure of documents and inspection of objects. Such orders are directed against either an adverse party or a third party, including government entities. In proceedings on [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:30+04:00 November 20th, 2013|

Trademark infringement outside Armenia

The general rule is that activities that take place outside the country of registration cannot support a charge of infringement or dilution. Thus, any infringement that takes place in a foreign country, even in a neighboring country, cannot be prevented on the basis of an Armenian trademark. Import and export of products (but not transit) [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:30+04:00 November 19th, 2013|

Standing for bringing trademark violation action in Armenia

A trademark infringement action may be brought by the owner of (or applicant for) the infringed trademark. A licensee may bring an infringement action only if the trademark owner consents thereto unless the license agreement provides otherwise. Exclusive licensees are entitled to proceed independently if the trademark owner does not take action within a reasonable [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:30+04:00 November 18th, 2013|

Burden of proof to establish trademark infringement in Armenia

There is a general rule that the plaintiff needs to prove all facts that support his claim, whereas the defendant will have to prove all those facts that serve to defend his position. Accordingly, the plaintiff must prove that it is the rightful owner (or licensee) of a valid trademark; if the trademark is registered, [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:31+04:00 November 15th, 2013|

Trademark infringement proceedings in Armenia

Court proceedings for trademark infringement in Armenia are typically initiated by filing a written statement of claim with the court of general jurisdiction. The venue is determined by the place of residence of the defendant. Once served the defendant is requested to file a statement of defense. The parties must allege the facts relevant to [...]

2014-08-23T11:49:09+04:00 November 14th, 2013|

Trademark enforcement proceedings in Armenia

Trademark enforcement and infringement actions in Armenia must be initiated before the courts of general jurisdiction. There are no specialized courts or tribunals to hear such cases. Appeals against the decisions of the courts of general jurisdiction may be brought before the Court of Appeals and further before the Court of Cassation. The owner of [...]

2014-01-07T11:26:04+04:00 November 11th, 2013|

Trademark marking in Armenia

Owners of a trademark may use the ® symbol to indicate that the mark concerned has been registered with the Armenian Intellectual Property Agency (AIPA) or to use the phrase “registered mark” (art. 12 of the Armenian Law on Trademarks). The benefit of using such a symbol is that it signals immediately that such trademark [...]

2014-01-07T11:23:29+04:00 November 9th, 2013|

Security interests over trademarks in Armenia

Security interests (collateral rights) over trademarks are recognized by Armenian law. The right conferred by a trademark (or trademark application) may be given as a security or may be levied in execution (art. 28 of the Law on Trademarks). Security interests must be contained in a written agreement signed by the parties and specifying the [...]

2014-01-07T11:19:52+04:00 November 8th, 2013|

Validity of trademark assignment in Armenia

Assignment of a trademark in Armenia shall be in writing and be registered with the Armenian Intellectual Property Agency (AIPA) in order to be valid (art. 1175 of the Civil Code of Armenia). Thus, failure to register will make the assignment unenforceable not only against innocent third parties but also the assignor and the assignee. [...]

2014-01-07T11:17:47+04:00 November 7th, 2013|

Assignment documentation for Armenian trademarks

Assignments are registered with the Armenian Intellectual Property Agency (AIPA). To register the assignment it is necessary to provide the AIPA with the assignment document which must be in writing and be signed by the assignor (previous owner) to be valid. No notarization or legalization is required. The document should state clearly who the parties [...]

2014-01-07T11:15:56+04:00 November 6th, 2013|

Trademark assignment in Armenia

The right conferred by the registration of or application for a trademark may be transferred or assigned to another person in respect of some or all of the goods or services for which the trademark is protected. To be valid and enforceable against third parties the assignment shall be recorded with the Armenian Intellectual Property [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:31+04:00 November 5th, 2013|

Trademark licenses in Armenia

To be valid and enforceable against third parties a license agreement shall be recorded with the Armenian Intellectual Property Agency (AIPA). It is possible to specify in the recordal that the license is an exclusive, a sole, or a non-exclusive license, as well as to specify that the license is a partial one having effect [...]

2014-01-07T11:11:33+04:00 November 4th, 2013|

Benefits of trademark registration in Armenia

Registration confers on the owner the exclusive right to use the trademark, to dispose of it and to prevent others from using and registering an identical trademark or a confusingly similar trademark for identical or similar goods or services. The general rule is that only the filing of a trademark gives the owner trademark rights. [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:31+04:00 November 1st, 2013|

Duration and maintenance of registration of trademarks in Armenia

A trademark registered in Armenia remains in effect for 10 years starting with the date of filing the application. At the end of this period it may be renewed for further 10-year periods. In order to maintain the registration, official fees (currently around $300 for a trademark in one class) have to be paid to [...]

2014-01-07T11:02:08+04:00 October 30th, 2013|

Third-party opposition to trademark registration in Armenia

Once a trademark application is accepted, it is published online in the Official Journal (http://aipa.am/en/trademark-applications/) for a two-month opposition period. The most common ground for opposing a trademark is prior rights when the opponent owns an earlier mark that it considers the same as, or similar to, the applicant’s. The opposition may be based on [...]

2014-01-07T10:58:36+04:00 October 29th, 2013|

Appealing a denied trademark application in Armenia

If any objections are raised by the Armenian Intellectual Property Agency (AIPA) at examination stage, the applicant will have the opportunity to persuade the examiner that the objections are not valid. If the objections relate to the goods and services listed in the specification, the applicant will be given the chance to make amendments to [...]

2014-08-01T13:53:54+04:00 October 28th, 2013|

Use of trademark before and after registration in Armenia

Applications can be made either for trademarks that are already in use or for trademarks that are not yet in use. There is no need to submit any proof of use/intent of use of a trademark even upon renewal. There is an exception, however, where proof needs to be submitted to overcome absolute grounds for [...]

2014-08-01T13:53:03+04:00 October 26th, 2013|

Trademark examination procedure in Armenia

Upon application the Armenian Intellectual Property Agency (AIPA) acknowledges receipt of the application detailing the trademark and the applicant’s name. Within one month following the application the AIPA examines the formalities (e.g. the correct classification). If no irregularities are found, the application will be published in the Official Journal for a two-month opposition period. The [...]

2017-01-30T13:26:31+04:00 October 25th, 2013|

Trademark classification system in Armenia

When applying for a trademark, the applicant will need to provide a list of the goods and/or services for which the mark is intended to be used. The registration system in Armenia is based on an internationally agreed system of classes called the Nice International Classification System (45 classes, comprising 34 for goods and 11 [...]

2014-08-01T13:51:19+04:00 October 23rd, 2013|