8,045 Sq. M. (1.99 Ac) Vineyard and Apricot Orchard for Sale in Lenughi, $22,000
This property of 8,045 sq. m. consists of a vineyard and a small apricot orchard (20 trees) and is located in Lenughi village, Armavir province (Ararat Valley). The land borders one of the main asphalted roads of the village and is very easily accessible from Yerevan via M5 highway. It is located near the famous Sardarapat Memorial (10 minutes' driving distance). The property is zoned as agricultural.
8,045 sq. m. (1.99 Ac)
Asking Price per Sq. M.
8,000 sq. m.
Return on Investment (Est.)
-13° C (January); +38° C (July)
Hours of Sunshine per Year
GPS Coordinates (approx.)
Annual Property Taxes
$43 (AMD 21,000)
Location & Distance
Lenughi is a village in Armavir province (Ararat Valley), at 890 m above sea level. It was established in 1928 as a state-owned farm ("sovkhoz"). It is currently a village with 472 households and a population of 1,672, engaged in gardening, fruit growing and cattle breeding. The "MAP" brandy and wine factory is located in Lenughi.
Summers are hot and clear; the winters are short, freezing, and partly cloudy; and it is dry year round. The hot season lasts for 3.5 months from June 3 to September 19, with an average daily high temperature above 28°C. The cold season lasts for 2.9 months, from December 1 to February 25, with an average daily high temperature below 9°C. The climate is dry and continental with annual precipitation of 250-300 mm.
Distance from major cities/towns:
- Yerevan – 53 km (55 min.)
- Ejmiadzin (Vagharshapat) – 32 km (33 min.)
- Armavir – 11 km (15 min.)
How does the closing process work?
We will need the passport copies of everyone you would like on the deed as well as a power of attorney (POA) to purchase the property. Please note that both the POA and the passport copies must be legalized (Apostille or consular legalization). Once the preliminary purchase agreement is signed and the price is paid we will have the transfer deed executed and notarized and will record your ownership rights at the Cadastre. We will send you the ownership certificate issued by the Cadastre.
How does seller financing work?
With seller financing, the title will be transferred to you immediately. However, the property will be encumbered by the seller's rights and can be repossessed if the installments are not paid on time.
How many people can be included on the deed?
You can have as many people listed on the deed as you would like.
Can the deed be made out to an LLC?
Yes, the deed can be made out to an LLC or corporation, whether registered in Armenia or abroad.
Can I build on the property?
In general, unless the land is rezoned as residential or commercial, it is not allowed to build on agricultural land, with the exception of small buildings of up to 30 sq. m. In certain communities it is allowed to build structures of up to 300 sq. m. if the size of the land is in excess of 10,000 sq. m.
In other cases, you will be required to change the zoning of the land. This is possible to do with the assistance of the local municipality. Normally, a business plan or other supporting documents need to be provided together with the application.
Has a title search been done?
Yes. Armenian law prohibits any sale of property without obtaining a clean title certificate from the Cadastre showing that the property is not encumbered or otherwise restricted.
Are taxes up to date?
Yes. Armenian law prohibits any sale of property without paying all outstanding taxes.
Can I visit the property?
Yes, you can certainly visit the property at any time.
Does the property have an address?
No, land plots zoned as agricultural are not assigned addresses in Armenia. However, you can plug the approximate GPS coordinates into Google Maps in order to locate the property (as shown above).
Has a survey been done?
All properties in Armenia have been measured and registered in the single registry maintained by the Cadastre. Irregularities with boundaries are quite rare. It is possible to hire a surveyor (measurer) to redraw the map of the lot and make sure there are no discrepancies between the actual boundaries and the boundaries as shown on the cadastral map.
Are RVs allowed?
There are no restrictions on parking vehicles, including RVs, travel trailers, etc.
Benefits of Investment in Land
7 Reasons for Investing in Armenian Property
1. 100% Foreign Ownership
Foreigners can be 100% owners of real estate in Armenia: they can acquire, hold, lease, sell, bequest and otherwise dispose of their property on equal basis with locals. Foreigners do not need to have a residence permit or otherwise show any links to Armenia. Agricultural land can be owned through a legal entity.
2. Fast & Safe Registration
The entire process of buying a property in Armenia can take only a few days. Armenia ranks very high – the 13th – among 190 countries on the World Bank’s “Registering Property” index which measures both the efficiency and the quality of the property registration system. By way of comparison, the U.S. ranks 39th, the U.K. – 41st, , France – 99th.
3. No Gift or Inheritance Taxes
Armenia does not have gift or estate taxes.
4. No Tax on Capital Gains
Capital gains on the sale of real property by an individual are generally not taxed.
5. Low Property Taxes
Tax real estate tax rates are in the range of 0% to 1% of the cadastral value which is normally significantly lower than the market value.
6. No Stamp Duties
There are no stamp duties. Only small official fees are paid and they do not depend on the value of the real estate.
7. Residency & Citizenship
Armenia offers temporary, permanent and special residence to foreign business people as well as citizenship-by-exception to important investors. Investing in real estate may qualify you for such immigration benefits.
Legal & Taxes
#1. Foreign Ownership of Real Property
Foreigners can be 100% owners of real estate in Armenia: they can acquire, hold, lease, sell, bequest and otherwise dispose of their property on equal basis with locals. Foreigners do not need to have a residence permit or otherwise show any links to Armenia. At the same time, investing in real estate might qualify you for a temporary or permanent residence permit. The only restriction applies to foreign ownership of agricultural land. When buying agricultural land in Armenia a foreigner may need to set up a legal entity and acquire the land in the name of that entity. Agricultural land can also be directly owned by foreigners who have special residency status in Armenia.
#2. Ownership Structure
Irrespective of your marital status you may choose to buy the property in your sole name.
In most countries marital laws specify that assets acquired during the marriage are jointly held by both spouses, irrespective of by whom they may have been purchased (community property). The position in Armenia is generally no different. In the case of a married couple, the civil law acts as though the property were in joint ownership on an equal basis (50-50), unless there were specific provisions to the contrary in the marriage contract. Thus, your spouse will be considered as a co-owner of the property whether or not his/her name was included in the purchase agreement.
Armenian law does not recognize "common law marriages." If you live together but are not married, Armenian law grants no automatic rights of permanent occupation or ownership to your partner. In the absence of a will, the partner will not have any inheritance rights either.
A single person who buys a property in Armenia and subsequently gets married, may enter into a marriage contract, in which the spouses can stipulate that the property is brought within the terms of the marriage contract.
Joint ownership exists when the property is purchased by two or more persons, with each one holding a stake in the property in whatever terms that may be decided between them. In the case of a couple this would normally be in equal shares but, where there are more than two purchasers, it may be in proportion to the amount each person contributed in financing the purchase e.g. 70% / 20% / 10%. In common law the equivalent is the ‘tenancy in common’.
All the owners are entitled to participate in decisions concerning the property. The law requires decisions concerning the property to be made unanimously. One or several owners can demand that the property be sold, unless it is possible for their shares to be physically separated or the other owners are willing to buy these shares. If no agreement can be reached it may be necessary to apply to the court for an order to be obtained authorizing the sale of the property.
One of the owners can also dispose by way of sale or gift the part of the property he/she owns. In case of sale of their part of the property they are obliged to grant a right of preemption to existing owners. This rule does not apply where disposal is by way of gift or inheritance. Other owners have one month to exercise their preemption rights.
It is possible to buy property in Armenia using a local or foreign limited company that has a distinct legal identity from that of its shareholders,
The main reasons for owning Armenian property through a company are:
- To allow purchase of the property by multiple persons;
- To provide stability and continuity in the ownership and management of family property;
- To facilitate the transfer and ownership of property;
- To avoid the constraints of inheritance laws;
- To create tax advantages;
- To protect the family home from business creditors.
There may also be tax disadvantages to this solution, notably in relation to withholding taxes and capital gains tax.
#3. Establishing Good Title
The clean title certificate (in Armenian - միասնական տեղեկանք) is issued by the Cadastre and shows the registered ownership as well as other rights and encumbrances over the property, including liens, mortgages, tenancies, easements etc. It is the most important document in the due diligence process and, in many cases, the single document on which the buyers rely. The certificate is valid for 15 business days during which the agreement (preliminary and/or final) must be executed. If the 15-day period lapses a new certificate will have to be obtained. An application for a clean title certificate can be filed by the seller, the buyer or any other interested party.
The existence of other interests in the property, such as easements, rights of heirs etc., cannot always be entirely verified by the clean title certificate. There may be persons who have a right of prior acquisition, or preemption, on the sale of a property. There may also be unauthorized alterations or additions carried out to the property that have not been declared to the planning authority. For building land, the certificate merely states that the land is zoned for construction; it will subsequently be necessary to obtain full planning consent (building permit).
#4. Preliminary Agreement
A preliminary agreement does not transfer the property, but specifies a future date or period during which the property will be transferred, and may set out the conditions (contingencies) which must be satisfied before closing occurs. Signing a preliminary agreement is not a mandatory step and you may proceed to closing the sale directly. However, having a preliminary agreement may be useful if you are not ready to close the sale immediately but want to secure the property and have a legally binding agreement.
A preliminary agreement may become necessary if the final sale is dependent on contingencies, such as:
- Securing a mortgage or other financing;
- Clearing the property from liens;
- Carrying out an appraisal;
- Obtaining other documents/permits, such as the consent of the guardianship (municipal) authority if one of the sellers is a minor.
A preliminary agreement must be notarized to be legally enforceable. Although preliminary agreements are generally not formally registered it is advisable to file a copy with the Cadastre to minimize the possibility of the seller breaching the contract by selling the property to a third party.
Typically, at this stage the buyer will pay a deposit to the seller. The amount of the deposit may vary and shall be agreed upon by the parties.
A preliminary agreement is a mutually binding instrument. Once it is validly signed, neither party may walk away from the deal, unless one or more of the contingencies is not met. If either party fails to observe the agreement's terms, the other party will have a range of legal remedies open to him. As a minimum, a defaulting buyer risks his deposit. It is common to stipulate that a defaulting seller must pay double the amount of the deposit as a penalty. Unless otherwise stipulated, a court may order specific performance to compel the parties to complete the transfer.
#5. Purchase and Sale Agreement (Deed of Sale)
The final sale and purchase agreement must be executed in the presence of a notary. Although the most basic agreements can also be authenticated directly by a cadastral officer a notary will be required if the agreement has to be customized or if one of the parties does not speak Armenian. The notary has the legal obligation to provide you with information on the nature and implications of the agreement you are signing. The notary will need to be satisfied as to the identity of the parties and their legal capacity to proceed with the transaction. The passports and marriage certificates of all signatories will be required. If the seller is a minor or elderly or handicapped they may be under the protection of a guardian, in which case the approval of the guardian will be sought before the sale can be concluded. If the seller is married then the notary will wish to be satisfied that the spouse agrees to the sale.
Each notary will have his/her own agreement template and these templates may vary in detail. It is necessary to ensure that all the important clauses are included in the agreement. Normally, agreements are in Armenian language only and the translation is done verbally by reading the whole agreement to the buyer. You will be charged a small fee for the interpreter's service.
The sale and purchase contract must be the final and comprehensive agreement because the parties will have only 30 days to have it registered at the Cadastre. If there are conditions that still have to be fulfilled it is better to sign a preliminary agreement. There are no "cooling-off" rules in Armenian law. Once signed, the agreement becomes effective and the parties may not withdraw from the contract.
If you are buying any fixtures or fittings as part of the purchase of the property, then you should arrange for an inventory to be prepared. If you are able to do so, visit the property the day before the agreement is signed to ensure that all is as it should be, particularly if the sale includes a certain number of fixtures and fittings. At the same time you can also check that you will get vacant possession of the property following the execution of the agreement, unless the latter provides that the property will be vacated at a later stage.
If you are unable to get across to Armenia for signing the agreement in person, you can arrange to give a relative, friend or lawyer a power of attorney to sign on your behalf.
After the final sale and purchase agreement is executed the buyer has 30 business days to register his/her ownership rights with the Cadastre. Failure to register these rights within the 30-day period will result in invalidation of the sale and purchase agreement. The buyer will have to submit an original copy of the sale and purchase agreement and a notarized translation of the passport. A notarized power of attorney will be required if the registration is done through a lawyer or other representative. The registration process can take from a few hours to a few days, depending on whether you pay the fast-track service fees. An ownership certificate will be issued with basic details about the property and the new owner. You will then present the ownership certificate to the public utility services (electricity, gas, phone etc.) so that they also register the change in ownership and prepare new agreements in your name.
#7. Fees and Taxes
Notary & Registration Fees
By convention, notary fees and official registration fees are paid by the buyer, but the parties may agree that the costs should be shared, or even paid by the seller. These costs are around $200-500. Official fees are fixed and do not depend on the value of the real estate. Fast-track services are also available for additional fees.
Fast-Track (Same Day)
Fast-Track (Next Day)
Fast-Track (Three Days)
Notarization Government Fee
Clean Title Certificate Fee
Ownership Registration Fee
Registration Government Fee
Capital Gains Tax
Transfer of residential property between individuals is normally not taxable, provided that both the buyer and the seller are individuals (not registered as private entrepreneurs). Thus, tax on capital gains realized by individuals form selling residential property is 0%. However, if the buyer is a legal entity or a private entrepreneur a withholding tax of 10% is applicable.
Real Estate (Property) Tax
The real estate tax is payable by the owner of the real estate on an annual basis. Tax rates are in the range of 0% to 1% of the cadastral value which is normally significantly lower than the market value.
Where the real property is sold by an individual the new owner assumes the tax liabilities for any unpaid property tax. However, recent amendments make it obligatory for the seller to procure a certificate confirming the absence of tax liabilities from the local municipality.
Rental Income Tax
Rental income not exceeding 58.35 million Armenian drams (approximately, US$120,000) per year is taxed at 10%. Rental income in excess of that amount is taxable at 20%.
Stamp Duty, Inheritance & Gifts Taxes
Armenia does not have stamp duties, gifts or inheritance taxes.
If you own a property such as an apartment there will be maintenance and service charges to pay. They will depend on the size and quality of the complex, such as whether there are lifts, a pool, gardens and other facilities.
#8. Currency Exchange & Anti-Money Laundering Regulations
Armenian laws require that the buyer of real property make the payments in local currency, Armenian drams. If the payment is done through a bank, the latter must ensure that these rules are complied with.
Currency exchange services are provided by banks, other credit institutions, as well as currency exchange offices.
There are no restrictions on transferring foreign currency to or from Armenia.
If the amount of the transaction exceeds 50 million drams (approx. US$105,000) the excess payment must be done through a bank transfer.
Intestate Inheritance. In the absence of a will the law stipulates an order of inheritance, as follows:
- Spouse, children and parents;
- Brothers and sisters (and their descendants);
- Uncles and aunts (and their descendants).
Each order of inheritors excludes the following inheritors, and those in the same order share the inheritance equally between them. Accordingly, those beyond the first order of inheritance will only inherit if there are no spouse, children and parents. Thus, if you die leaving a surviving spouse, two parents and two children, each of them will receive 1/5 of your estate. It is possible to increase the rights of the surviving spouse or the children but this requires some inheritance planning.
Spouse. The surviving spouse is not specifically protected under Armenian inheritance law. This is because the law has traditionally considered that the estate of the deceased belongs to the whole family, rather than any single member of it. That being said, only that part of the estate belonging to the deceased is subject to inheritance laws, so a surviving spouse will normally retain ownership of at least 50% of their jointly held assets.
If the marriage was not registered, the surviving partner will have no rights of inheritance of the estate of the deceased. As between one another those living in free union are legal strangers, with no inheritance rights between them.
Children. Children of the couple born outside of the marriage benefit from the same rights as those of the children from within the marriage, as do children of the deceased born with another partner. Adopted children of the couple benefit from the same rights as natural children, but they are excluded from any rights of inheritance from their natural parents. The grand-children receive no entitlement, unless one of the children of the deceased is himself deceased. In this case, they step into the shoes of their deceased parent.
Testamentary Freedom. Under Armenian law you can freely dispose of your estate and you may choose to disinherit your spouse, children and parents by making a will or a gift. However, they may still claim 50% of the value of the property that they would be entitled to in the absence of a will if:
- They are aged under 18 or above 60;
- They are disabled or legally incapable.
The will must be made in writing and notarized. Failure to notarize the will makes it invalid.
Inheritance Planning. If you want to have some control over your estate on your death, then you need to undertake some inheritance planning, such as:
- Increase the proportion of an heir's share by making a will;
- Make gifts during your lifetime;
- Buy the property through a limited company;
- Take a life insurance policy.
Taxes. Inheritance and gifts are not taxed in Armenia. However, the disposition of property may still be taxable in the country where the heir has his/her tax residence, unless there is a double tax treaty between Armenia and that country.
Accepting the Inheritance. The heirs have 6 months following the death to accept the inheritance by making a notarized declaration. The notary will establish the list of beneficiaries, verify if a will exists, undertake the division of the estate, and issue inheritance certificates to the inheritors.
Executor. You may appoint a lawyer or another person to act as the executor. The executor shall take measures for the maintenance and management of the estate, inform the heirs and other beneficiaries of the will, pay and collect debts, represent the estate in courts, ensure that the estate is distributed in accordance with the will, assist with the interpretation of the will, report to the heirs, work with the notary etc.
Armenia is a modern and fast-growing country with rich history and traditions, beautiful nature, excellent cuisine, low taxes, low crime rate, and low cost of living. Foreigners are allowed to be 100% owners of real estate in Armenia and can take advantage of investment opportunities. Armenia generally does not tax real estate transactions, capital gains, gifts, or inheritance. Real estate investment can also grant immigration benefits, such as residence or citizenship.
A knowledgeable local lawyer can help you navigate through the investment process, avoid pitfalls and minimize risks. Legal assistance can be very valuable in the process of due diligence checks, document review and preparation, payments, registrations, etc. Please contact us for a free evaluation of your case.
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